The mortality rate of the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus in Spain has been studied during winter. The main cause of mortality, 70.2% of the total, is illegal shooting. There is a coincidence between the temporal distribution of the mortality rate and the phenology of the species in this region. The existence of two preferred wintering zones in the Iberian peninsula is confirmed. The global mortality rate caused by direct human factors reaches a worrying 83.9%.
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